How To Choose The Best Air Ambulance Provider

Traveling abroad and getting sick or injured and trying to get back home is not something we all think about when planning a trip. The truth is you may never think about this until you actually are faced with a real-life emergency and you're out of the country, away from familiar doctors and the healthcare you've become accustomed to at home.
If your loved one becomes seriously ill or injured and you cannot find an air medical flight home, the best thing you can do is to contact the U.S. Embassy in that country. They will have names of reputable air ambulance companies that have the capability to fly internationally.
There are many companies that provide this service. Before you pick one, you'll want to do some research on the company. So what do you ask? We've compiled some information to help you with your search:
Licenses and Safety:
Are they licensed? All air ambulance carriers need to have a current license to provide service. What is their safety record? Only the best air ambulance charter companies get rated by ARG/US. This safety rating assures that you're dealing with a company with no accidents.
Owner vs. Broker:
Another important consideration is whether you're dealing with an air ambulance broker or an owner/operator. The difference between the two is that a broker finds an aircraft for you; the owner owns and operates their own aircraft. You want to choose the owner/operator. They maintain their aircraft and are familiar with them, knowing their safety record, maintenance history and more. A broker won't necessarily know the history of the aircraft they find for you.
Medical Crew and Flight Crew:
Be sure that there will be trained, specialized medical flight crew on board. Medical personnel on an air ambulance should have specialized training and hold additional certifications that regular RNs or paramedics don't have. Flight nurses and flight paramedics are trained on flight physiology and know how to operate the special medical equipment used in an air ambulance. Flight crews should be very experienced in the type of aircraft being flown have a current medical and have experience flying internationally.
Services to further assist you:
Some air ambulance companies act as a concierge and set up every aspect of the transport. They arrange ground transportation, help with baggage, and contact your insurance company for you. Some have on-staff attorneys that can be an advocate for you and handle any resistance from your insurance company.
Types of aircraft:
If the company has the ability to fly internationally, chances are they will be transporting the patient in a business jet. Find out what kind of jets they use, how many pilots will be on-board, whether there is enough room for family members, baggage and in some circumstances, a pet.
Find out if there will be any out-of-pocket cost involved or whether insurance covers the flight. In some circumstances you may required to put down a deposit.
Doing your due diligence will pay off and you'll find a reputable air ambulance provider. It would be a good idea to find one before your next trip. Another thing you may want to do prior to a trip is to call your insurance company and find out if you're covered for air ambulance service ahead of time. If you're not, look into trip insurance that covers air medial transports. An internet search should bring up several to consider.

Top Halal Food Choices

With more and more nationalities living together as one, halal cuisine has become more and more popular in the whole world. With halal butchers and supermarkets on every street corner, you will also find food outlets where all the dishes on offer are preferred in this traditional way. Halal food delivery choices are huge nowadays, and they can range from your traditional Indian curry to a hot and spicy kebab.
Indian takeaways have been around for many decades, the western society always wondering just what it is that makes their curry taste so great. Without the knowledge or the ingredients in the home to copy dishes found in restaurants, halal food delivery is becoming more and more popular, Indian dishes being a firm favorite. Choose from lamb, beef, and chicken dishes, and choose from mild dishes such as biryani to flaming madras.
When you order Indian halal food delivery, the accompaniments to your order are almost as important as the dish itself! Popadoms, pilau rice, and naan bread are so Moorish that you will find yourself wanting to order more; the delicately flavoured basmati rice having a beautiful flavor that you just won't find in western cuisine.
Halal food delivery does not cater just for meat eaters and lovers of hot and spicy food; you can find a variety of both starters and main dishes that are perfect for vegetarians too. Choose from vegetable samosas to onion bhajis and fish dishes; the choice is so varied that the only thing you can guarantee is the quality.
Next, if you are looking for a snack, or something that you want to eat on the move or after a long day at work, a kebab could be just what you are looking for. Once again, with only halal meat being used, you can choose from lamb or beef for your kebab, the meat constantly being heated on a long skewer for all to see. With the juices dripping from the kebab meat, and the lines of fresh salad, pitta breads, and sauces waiting to be combined, the few minutes that it takes to prepare your kebab will seem like a lifetime.
Another secret in halal food delivery is the ingredients that go together to make the most delicious sauces for your kebab. From a mild yoghurt type dressing to a red and spicy one, each one is unique in its flavor and texture; and combined they taste even better. And, once again, you halal kebab outlet will cater perfectly for vegetarians; order vegetable samosos or fafali, and indulge yourself in the very best flavors from the east.
Whether you love to eat your tandoori chicken in a wrap, your kebab with lashings or spicy sauce, or your prefer to order your halal food delivery to eat at home, there is a dish just waiting for you. Choose from a huge range of meat dishes in sauce such as dansak, bhuna, and tandoori, and never forget to order more side orders than you think you will need; your naan breads, popadoms, and rice will leave you satisfied but always ready for more!

The Koi-San People of Namibia - Real Life As God Planned

I just love the Koi-San people of the Kalahari Desert in Namibia and Botswana, in Africa. They live nomadic lives, but not randomly nomadic; each clan has a set pattern which is repeated each year, whereby they live in specific areas, one dedicated for each season of the year.
They do not war against anyone and they firmly believe that they must treat all people, animals, plants, Earth and all life with kindness and respect; as instructed by God. This reminds me of one of the Usui Reiki daily pledges, "Today I will be kind to and love all living creatures."
The Koi San people's belief is that Mother Nature must be given enough time, about a year, to restore herself to full abundance after they have lived in an area for a season. At the end of each season they move to another area, where they had lived the previous year, and to which they will return after each year. They gratefully and meaningfully thank Mother Nature every time they eat and drink anything. When they kill an antelope or any wild animal, they pray, asking Mother Nature to forgive them, to reassure her that this deed has not been for sport or intended as cruelty of any kind, but it is specifically for food or to make clothing or utensils. They then bless the animal and Mother Nature before skinning it, eating and using it.
As these people live in the Namib Desert, they are continually foraging for roots and they always thank Mother Nature for the roots they find to eat and for the water that they extract from these roots.
In the series, 'The Secret', the presenters strongly urge us to have an "attitude of gratitude" for what we already have. Could we possibly improve on these Koi-San people's attitude of gratitude to life, to God, and to the Earth? Or do 99% of us take everything that nature gives us totally for granted, presuming that the supply will simply continue? Some of us know that it won't, as the soil becomes more and more barren and the water supply becomes more poisoned and even totally depleted in some areas on Earth.
Since I learned of these people's attitude to life, when I eat anything I make a special point of thanking God and Mother Nature for it. I marvel at the wonder of its perfection, and how it is a gift from nature to feed and sustain me. One life, one energy and one creation.
Do you see what I mean? We're all part of one creation, made of one energy and created by the great One God. The Hoi-San people live the most beautiful lives of anyone on Earth; and they live in the Namib Desert where conditions are extreme, they certainly would be for most of us Westerners. They have dwelt there for thousands of years. Unfortunately they were recently rounded up and put in camps by the Botswana Government because the government wanted to use their land. They strongly opposed this with the help of a few legal experts, and have been given back a sizable piece of their naturally inherited land where many of them continue living in their traditional way.
Their love and respect for nature, in fact for all life, is phenomenal. I often wonder if this is not the type of lifestyle intended by God for all humankind. But we Westerners have wondered so totally away from it, living the unnatural lives that we live in towns and cities, doing what we do to entertain ourselves and lavish in the luxury lifestyles of our choice. We may believe that we have advanced in many ways in industry and technology, but we also need to remember that we have trashed our planet and hemisphere in the process. Is this evolution or devolution? I think it's the latter.
Hopefully these thoughts will inspire you to a higher consciousness whereby you can inspire humankind to an even higher revelation of the truth. I'd be very happy to communicate with all who feel inspired by this article.
Peace, harmony and love to you all - Shalom.
Vaughan Jones is a writer, editor and CEO at ONE Scribe. And he is the founder of the ONE Life-Love-Energy Foundation. Vaughan spent thirty years of his life as an accountant and business management consultant. After suffering heart failure he found spiritual consciousness in Reiki and he became a practitioner. Over the past fifteen years he has been writing, editing, and mentoring business owners.

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The Importance of Gemstones in Our Lives

Gemstones are basically minerals or rocks that are believed to possess divine power. The beauty, cut and sheen of gemstones convey their timeless beauty and that's the reason gemstone jewelry are in vogue all the time. They are the finest example of creativity of God and they possess a unique charm that no other stone does.
In the ancient times, gemstones were considered to be status symbol and were worn only by the royal class. They also served as amulets and talismans that provided protection against the evil. Today, gemstones are worn by people for style as well as astrological benefits. It is said that gemstones have the power to be in sync with the planets associated with the birth chart of people and transfer positive radiations to the body of the wearer. They also have the power to reduce or negate the effect of malicious planets present in the birth chart of the wearer. Different types of gemstones possess different qualities and based on the study of our birth chart, we should wear the gemstone that suits us.
Let's have a look at the various categories in which gems are classified:
Precious Gemstones
They are those gemstones which are extremely hard, rare to find and very beautiful. Diamond, Ruby, Sapphire and Emeralds are the only four gemstones which are considered to be "precious". They are very beautiful to look at and have a luster that is unmatched. They hold an esteemed place in every woman's choice of jewelry and are considered to be prized possessions. There are many astrological benefits attached to them and they are used for curing a number of diseases.
All the precious gemstones are used in the form of jewelry by women of all ages. They are also used as engagement ring by many people all over the world.
Semi-Precious Gemstones
All the gemstones that do not come in the category of precious gemstones are said to be semi-precious gemstones. The most famous semi-precious gemstones are turquoise, peridot, coral, topaz, zircon, lapis-lazuli, amethyst and tourmaline. These stones are inexpensive and make great fashion accessories. Their therapeutics properties and healing effects make them an exceptional choice for all people.
It is said that we should wear gemstones only after consultation from a good astrologer. This helps in preventing us from the negative effects of the gemstones and maximizing the positive effects so that our personality can groom in a better way.
The best part about using gemstones is that one can get them made into great jewelry and spruce up the style statement by wearing gemstone jewelry. Women love wearing rings, pendants and bracelets made from gemstones.
There are many online stores that specialize in selling gemstones thereby making it easier for people to buy best quality gemstones online. You can browse for gemstones online, shop from the comfort of your couch and get jewelry delivered to your doorstep in just a few easy steps.

Getting Past the Gatekeepers

A man called the office and said, "I see that your business doesn't have a web site." "Yes, it does," I drily answered. In fact, the company's web site had been up for about two years. The boss updated it on a regular basis. Now there was someone who had not done their research. The man on the phone stumbled over his words and could not recover his sales pitch after that. Needless to say, the call ended quickly.
Receptionists, clerks, secretaries and administrative assistants are the gatekeepers of the office. If they have been on their jobs for a good period of time, they've learned how to turn back salespersons that cold call their companies or drop in without appointments. Salespersons seem to think they have a myriad of tricks to get through the door, but gatekeepers are aware of them. If salespersons want to be more successful in contacting decision-makers who may purchase their goods and/or services, they must understand a few things.
Do not overdo the "friendly" attitude. An overly peppy "Hi! How are you today?" will put a gatekeeper on alert that the call may be a sales call. The super-friendly tactic sounds even phonier in person. Be polite, but tone down the acting.
Leave a message. It is the gatekeeper's job to relay messages to their bosses, so tell them why you are calling. Do not be vague in an attempt to mask the fact that you are selling something. The boss always wants the gatekeeper to bring detailed messages to them. Gatekeepers are often unfairly blamed for a caller's failure to fully state the nature of their call. You can bet the gatekeeper is not going to be happy to hear from the salesperson again if that happens.
They will automatically make it harder for the sales person to get through. Besides, a busy boss is not necessarily going to return the call of someone they don't know and don't know exactly what they want. Also, most bosses are aware of tricks sales persons use to get in contact with them.
Realize that the gatekeeper knows something. If a salesperson can't reach the decision-makers, it would be a good idea to ask the gatekeeper about the company. Regardless of the research the salesperson may have done, the gatekeeper will probably be able to give them information about the company that the salesperson did not know. This information will help the salesperson the next time they approach the company. But salespersons should not tie up the gatekeepers' time unnecessarily as they have other callers and visitors to deal with. Ask a few questions, thank them for their time, and move on the next prospect.
Take a hint. If the sales person is continually told the decision-maker is not available, it is very possible that the decision-maker doesn't want to talk to them. The decision-maker has told the gatekeeper to keep the salesperson out. Constant calling and dropping by is not going to endear the sales person to anyone at the company. It's time to go to another tactic, like direct mail.
Don't get mad. Salespersons should never accuse the gatekeeper of not putting their messages through. I knew my boss did not want to talk to a particular sales person, so I told them he would be in later. They called back less in less than a couple of hours. "You told me he would be in this afternoon," they said sarcastically. This goes back to the previous paragraph. Yes, gatekeepers regularly lie to protect their bosses from people who would intrude on their busy days. Just like salespersons, gatekeepers have a job to do and orders to follow. Get over it and let it go.
Don't just drop in. Always keep in mind that decision-makers are busy. It is highly unlikely that they are going to interrupt their work to talk to a salesperson that "just happened to be in the neighborhood". The gatekeeper will be sent to talk with you. If the boss has said no, don't expect the gatekeeper to change the boss' mind. It puts the gatekeeper in a bad spot. They will remember it was the salesperson's fault if the boss becomes annoyed with the gatekeeper for asking a second time if the salesperson can come up to the office. Trying to make an appointment on the spot is not going to work, either. The gatekeeper cannot put things on the boss's calendar without their permission. Call the office later, and make an appointment.
Give a time limit. When making an initial appointment, give the gatekeeper a time frame. "I only want ten minutes of the decision-maker's time," is a good statement to make. The gatekeeper will relay this information to their boss. The boss may be more open to taking a meeting if they know in advance how long it will last and if the meeting will not take up a lot of their busy time.
Don't lie. Some salespersons will say that they have talked to a decision-maker before, giving the impression that the person knows them. The gatekeeper will check this with the decision-maker. If the salesperson gets caught in a lie, the game is over. The same goes for a salesperson pretending that they are calling about something else. When the deception is revealed, there is virtually no chance they'll ever get to talk to the decision-maker. The gatekeeper will see to this. Plus, no one wants to do business with someone who comes across as dishonest.
Salespersons will always have to deal with gatekeepers, so they might as well learn how to do it properly so they can have better results.

Top 4 Careers That Help People

If you dread going to work every day or have ever wanted to do the kind of work that made you feel good about what you do then this article is for you. Working in a career that helps others is the difference between looking forward to your job and forcing yourself to go to work each day. One great thing about careers that help people is that they will always be in high demand with available employment opportunities. Below I have listed a few of these rewarding jobs.
I can't think of a career that helps others much more than being a teacher. You are shaping the minds of the future and play a major role in a person's development. The downside is that teachers are under-paid for the type of work they do and its importance. It is without doubt that these people do their jobs for the satisfaction in helping others. The up-side is they have summers off and strong health benefits.
Health Care
Whether you are a nurse, home care giver, or administrator you're surrounded with opportunities to help people by working in health care. Doing the kind of work that provides comfort to people or increases their good health is very rewarding. Also, being a contributing factor to someone's well-being is among the most honorable of professions. Along with a rewarding type of work, health care workers are typically well-paid with good benefits.
Helping and improving a person's mental state can drastically change their quality of life. It's estimated that major depression affects over fourteen million Americans that are eighteen and over any given year. A psychiatrist can teach those depressed people how to manage their problems more effectively so they can live a happier life. This also includes couples with marital issues. Playing a part in keeping a marriage together sounds pretty rewarding to me. Like health care workers, psychiatrists get paid very well.
Law Enforcement
Law enforcement is a career in which helping people is mostly a by-product of the work performed. Keeping the streets safe from criminal activity is a way to help others on a large-scale. Police officers give a valuable service to entire communities and neighborhoods by risking their own safety for the sake of others. "To protect and serve" is their motto for a reason. However, like teachers, they are under-paid for the kind of work they do.
In conclusion, no matter what the salary is or how strong the benefits are, helping people is the most important thing we can do as a society. Getting paid for it is just a bonus. Most people who have a career in helping others didn't start because of the pay. They started for the rewarding feeling that comes from helping their fellow-men and women.

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Genomics in Medicine

Genomics in Medicine
The Gene Sequencing Future Has Arrived
Merriam Webster defines genomics as:
A branch of biotechnology concerned with applying the techniques of genetics and molecular biology to the genetic mapping and DNA sequencing of sets of genes or the complete genomes of selected organisms, with organizing the results in databases, and with the applications of the data (as in medicine or biology)
Many of us have just started to hear about the advances in genomics in some fashion.
These advances are on the leading edge of technology. The growth in this field is happening all around us. This article will provide a little review and then address a few of these advances.. In the interest of simplifying, the complex biochemistry will not be extensively addressed in this writing. We will look at the basics of biochemistry in future articles.
DNA was first discovered in the late 1800's. Then in 1957, Francis Crick and James D. Watson discovered and described the double helix structure of DNA along with some of the molecular biology and chemistry that are all related. This article is more of a general overview of genomics and some recent advances in the field
When Watson and Crick made these discoveries, they opened a door more powerful than the discovery of nuclear fission, the Atomic Bomb. The consequences of their discoveries and the subsequent science devoted to those discoveries make it the most important discovery humankind has ever made - according to some of the current experts in the field and Watson himself.
The pursuits related to this discovery, the accompanying biochemistry, and many other rapidly growing branches of genetic science, have been going on since that first breakthrough.
The first complete genome sequenced was that of a common bacterium called Hemophilus Influenzae - good old H. Flu. H. Flu is a bacterium with which most of us in the medical field are familiar. It is capable of causing infections from meningitis to pneumonia when it is the agent. Identified years ago, Hemophilus Influenzae is a very familiar and notorious organism. A Nobel laureate, named Hamilton Smith, one of the Human Genome project leaders, had been working on this organism and its DNA for decades because of its prevalence, and it was chosen as the first organism for sequencing because of the high quality DNA libraries he could provide.
In modern genetics, the genome is the entirety of an organism's hereditary information stored in the DNA, including all of its genes. The plan for sequencing the entire human genome was initialized in 1987 and was funded and planned for 15 years to accomplish the goal. Work started about 1990 and was declared completed in April of 2003. It cost 2.8 Billion dollars. It was a big event, you might remember seeing or reading about it.
The Basics of What We Are Doing
As we began the sequencing of genomes for organisms in our world, discoveries have literally exploded and are driving technological advances as well. Technological advance had to occur to keep pace with the discoveries being made and vice versa. Some of these advances are faster computers, better storage of data, and ever-increasing efficiency in sequencing machines. We have sequenced all types of organisms from viruses, bacteria, plants, animals, and people, to even wine and chocolate. The numbers of completely sequenced organisms in each of these categories is relatively small. The number of organisms we have partially sequenced is large and growing. We also sequence the DNA from nonliving organic remains.
At the peak of the Human Genome Project, we were generating DNA sequences at the rate of 1000 nucleotides per second, around the clock. In February of 2013, a gene sequencer came on the market that could sequence 1million nucleotides per second for targeted sequences. That is a 1000 fold increase in 11years. Moreover, they just keep getting faster and faster and cheaper and cheaper. The speed with which this technology is advancing is literally overwhelming.
We have also fairly recently completed the sequencing for hundreds of cancers which have hundreds of mutations because of simple changes in the sequencing of their DNA which makes a gene stop or change functioning.
The most common of the hereditary cancers are breast, ovarian, prostate, and colorectal. These genomes were chosen first in cancer sequencing because of this commonality. We all have similar DNA but it is not exactly the same, we do not get "exactly" the same cancers, even though we are 99.9% genetically identical. It is that elusive one tenth of the genome we look at for our ancestry, and the remainder for indications of disease. Therefore, the sequencing of an individual's genome can tell us about that person and their ancestry on a genetic level, and grossly simplified, it tells us which gene changes are causing what expressions in the phenotype (body) or other areas of interest such as the biomolecular pathways.
Sequencing identifies problems related to gene coding such as cancers, a myriad of genetic disorders, susceptibilities, and other unobvious interactions at the biomolecular level. The list is literally almost endless. The good news is that it is also getting cheaper to do it... exponentially cheaper. It is calculated that in the next few years, you will be able to have your complete genome sequenced for around a hundred dollars. The magic money goal for quite a few years has been a complete genome sequence for $1000 and we have now achieved that goal. There are some companies doing very tiny parts now for somewhere under $400. However, there are 6 billion bases to the complete genome, so it is a tiny part. There are markers called SNP's (single nucleotide polymorphisms) these companies use to tell you if you have a genetic predisposition for a certain health issue, such as heart disease, prostate cancer and many others. The bit they examine does not take into account psyche, lifestyle, pollution or external factors because we do not know in most cases, exactly how these factors affect our genes, we know only that they do. This approach then gives a percentage of risk for certain diseases.
We know that pollution damages the vascular endothelium and this damage causes an inflammation that is the precursor to inflammatory atherosclerosis. Demonstrating of course that we do know quite a bit from our current research, but it is so minuscule in comparison to the numbers of genes that it is essentially nothing numerically speaking. This type of information was not on the gene level of investigation until recently and we are not sure what it means on a gene level but we are getting there.
However, what we currently know, along with the information we are gleaning from genomics, can make a huge difference in someone's quality of life with the appropriate intervention. It will be immeasurably better as the science of genomics continues to improve.
Will we be able to alter the gene, or gene plate, or some other factor in the process to make us more resistant to pollution, or rather the damage it causes on the endothelial level? Yes, we will... and soon.
What These Pursuits Mean - An Overview
On a grand scale, the ability to understand our genome tells us who we are and where we came from. I mean, who we really are. We all carry all our collective human history from the beginning of humankind in our DNA. In addition, we have established that scientific Eve began in East Central Africa approximately 100,000 to 200,000 years ago. She is Humanity's genetic mother. We have even sequenced the DNA of the Neanderthals and found that a small percentage of the current population carries their genes. Just imagine, not only are we about to change all of medicine and pharmacology and many other sciences, but we will truly know ourselves, for the first time.
At present, we are beginning to be able to find the gene or gene sequence (plate), isolate the coding problem, and understand to some degree how that change in coding has expressed as a disease. It is an intensive and complex process to identify an anomaly after the sequencing has been completed.
You might remember that there are just four nucleobases... guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), and cytosine (C) (see Fig1 above). Ninety Eight percent of your DNA does not code for active proteins. This leaves two percent holding sequenced information from the nucleobases that produce proteins. These proteins manage essentially everything in the body. If the nucleobase is damaged, mutates, was never present, or was wrong in the first place for whatever reason, there can be disease expression because of a malfunctioning protein the gene processes produced, or did not produce when they should have. At this point, we are very limited in what we can do to adjust or repair one of the nucleobases, but that knowledge foundation is growing exponentially as well. In designer pharmacology at present, the focus is trending toward fixing the malfunctioning protein or process that the damaged sequence has created rather than fixing the nucleobase or even the gene plate specifically. Fixing the nucleobase, at the root level, is the ultimate goal however. Some of this is now being done at the embryonic level for the more known or devastating genetic diseases such as Huntington's Chorea, Cystic Fibrosis, Sickle Cell Anemia and a long list of others.
The genome is sequenced from cells taken from the embryo and examined for known adverse phenotype expression, or in other words, known genetic disease and its bodily expression.
It is being observed, though not clinically proven that treatments for these diseases, based on genomic medicines are far more effective, in some cases even "curative" in the younger patient. This means that being genomically sequenced and treated after the disease has advanced may improve some aspect or quality of life, but in all likelihood will not save you once the damage is done. This is why there are so many advocates for early sequencing in the scientific and medical community. However, as this science advances age may no longer be a factor.
In 2013, the cost for a genome sequence was about $8,000. We have now achieved complete genome sequencing for $1000. The current cost has now become less expensive than many treatments currently in use. In only a few years (approximately 3-5), the cost will be about $100. As the cost falls exponentially and the information grows exponentially this will become the preferred treatment of the very near future, where almost all types of health issues are addressed at the genomic level, with lifestyle and environment not left out, but their effects on the genome much more understood genomically and maybe even more amenable to change or correction.
Though genomics are essential in many diverse fields, the medical field has been given a significant focus because it means curing or controlling the worst diseases that have plagued us for centuries, not to mention changing aging, selecting optimal traits for our children, and even improving the ones in those of us already here. There will come a future time with the use of this science that we will have to ask ourselves "Are we still H. Sapiens Sapiens, or have we become something else?"
The way we view the practice of medicine, diagnostics, and treatment at the present time, is about to change, drastically, and it is already happening. Instead of just treating the disease symptoms, in its outward expression or "phenotype," we will be treating and curing diseases at the genomic and biomolecular level. We will change the genes themselves and/or their pathways. This has produced a new limb of the medical science tree populated by "omics." DNA and RNA and the Messenger RNA use many processes to get the coded information from the gene or gene plate to the RNA that can make the protein, which is active in the person or "phenotype." Examples of these include transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. These are all representative of accessible pathways of intervention and are becoming or have become specialty medical and scientific fields of their own.
Alterations in these various genomic pathways are being identified as areas of interest or intervention to change the outcome of disease manifestation in the body.
Chemical modifications in these numerous pathways or proteins can be made pharmacologically. Epigenetics studies the effects of environmental factors on the DNA. DNA changes its coding if influenced by outside factors. This means our DNA changes over time for better or worse depending on innumerable internal and external variables.
Thomas P. Cappola, MD, ScM, and Kenneth B. Margulies, MD put it this way:
"For example, emerging data indicate that in-utero exposure to stresses such as starvation can alter DNA methylation patterns of genes involved in growth and metabolism to affect organ development and future cardiovascular risk. Exposures such as tobacco smoke and air pollution may modulate cardiovascular risk in part by inducing epigenetic changes. Animal models have also demonstrated a substantial role for histone modification in cardiac hypertrophy, and drugs that target histone-deacetylases (HDACs) have been considered as a therapeutic strategy for heart failure." NIH public access document.
What they are saying is that the histone pathway is a target area for use of a designer drug that would be a treatment for heart failure. Think of the number of pathways at the gene level that regulate our bodies and then picture the applications of targeted pharmacotherapy on the outcome of the diseases whose pathways we understand. We will create drugs whose role is so specific that there are not even side effects with which to contend. We also have to consider the amount of drug necessary, which would be minuscule compared to the amounts we currently use. At present, we are essentially treating the whole body, with large doses of chemicals, to control a symptom or symptoms, and our numerous other systems and organs become treated as well with this shotgun approach. This approach opens the door for countless side effects and the need for endless clinical trials for safety, and we know little about the effects of all these chemicals on the DNA. That is all about to change as you can see if you are able to grasp the potential for a new dawn in the age of medicine and pharmacology.
We will be able to identify gene markers that represent Mendelian or "familial" potential for all diseases, including cardiac disease. Heart disease is still the number one killer in the world.
We will also understand the anomalies of rare genetic diseases that affect the cardiopulmonary system, and what will stop their expression through repairing the DNA or one of the pathways at the embryonic level before damage ever appears. Imagine all of the invasive testing this will also eliminate.
Whole branches of medicine such as the Cardiac Cath lab, Surgery, and all manner of invasive techniques, will be relegated to trauma assessment and repair, or be eliminated because they will no longer be needed for diseases. Branches of genomics are already arising for regrowing limbs, organs, and spinal cord repair. The list of pathways and interventions is almost endless as you can see.
The most common areas of interest in cardiology have continued to be researched for the past fifty years because heart disease has been the most common cause of death. Among these are Coronary Artery Disease and Myocardial Infarction, Heart Failure, Arrhythmias, and peripheral and cerebral vascular disease. Ongoing, genome wide association studies continue in these primary areas as well and variants in the genes and gene plates identified or implicated for these vascular diseases. Our knowledge is growing as more and more sequencing is done and comparative patterns across the population are seen expressed in the genomes of the individuals who are sequenced. We have a growing body of knowledge of specific gene patterns accumulating daily from 10,000 or so workers in these genetics fields. In complement, because of electronic medical records and the internet, along with the growth of gene sequencing ability and technology, this knowledge is being shared and the areas of association repeatedly compared and confirmed. This is the path to therapeutic intervention and real cure. If one knows they have a mutation in a gene plate that is associated with early MI, then we can assign a percentage of risk based on the clinical picture of how completely or partially this gene pattern is expressed. Alternatively, in the case of early sequencing, we can intervene in the embryo before the disease is even manifested. We are learning how to do these interventions at an ever-accelerating pace, but there are several libraries of research to be done. The good news is the speed with which we can do this and the ability to store and share the information we acquire.
In this brief article, I have only been able to lightly touch the surface of the rapidly growing fields in genomics and a minuscule amount of what we are seeing now and will be seeing in the very near future in terms of diagnostics and treatment. I hope it has sparked your interest for this amazing and exploding field. I would humbly recommend accessing all the information you can find on genomics and get your head around it. Not only is it changing the world economy, but also our roles, our jobs, and how we deliver health care. It is also changing the way we diagnose, treat, and care for patients and families. Genomics is happening now.

Attacking Cognovit Judgments in Ohio

A trial court's jurisdiction (the right to hear the case) over cognovit notes is governed by R.C. 2323.12 and 2323.13, and these statutory requirements must be met in order for a valid judgment to be granted upon the note, or for a court to have subject-matter jurisdiction over it. Since a defendant does not have the chance to be heard in the cognovit proceedings and gives up various rights and defenses normally afforded to him, Ohio law provides that cognovit judgments must be strictly construed and applied. In addition, to support a judgment on the note, the terms must be facially sufficient to support judgment. In order for a cognovit note to be valid, the terms of the note itself must be sufficient to facially support the judgment for which confession is made.
R.C. §2323.13(A) provides in pertinent part: "*** Notwithstanding any agreement to the contrary, if the maker *** resides within the territorial jurisdiction of a municipal court *** or signed the warrant of attorney authorizing confession of judgment in such territory, judgment on such warrant of attorney shall be confessed in a municipal court having jurisdiction in such territory, provided the court has jurisdiction over the subject matter; otherwise, judgment may be confessed in any court in the county where the maker *** resides or signed the warrant of attorney. ***" (emphasis added)
It is clear that a warrant of attorney confessing judgment must be filed in the county where the maker resides or the county where the warrant of attorney was signed. It is also clear that the court must find that jurisdiction exists from the face of the note itself.
What this means is that the note must clearly indicate where the maker resides or where the note is executed. If the note itself does not establish either of those two elements necessary to confer the court with subject matter jurisdiction required to enforce a cognovit note, then the note is invalid and the judgment is void ab initio. (i.e. treated as invalid from the outset).
A plaintiff's argument that it may have been the "parties' intention" to have the matter adjudicated in a particular jurisdiction is irrelevant and contrary to Ohio law. Any attempt to designate a particular county as the venue for litigation of the Note does not comply with the requirements, as the attempt to designate the forum does not comply with the requirements of R.C. §2323.13(A).
There are other issues that can invalidate a cognovit judgment as well so it is imperative to seek the advice of a skilled attorney in this specialized area of the law.